“Disability is a class ill itself that any one may fall victim at any time. It call come about as a result of a sudden accident, a fall down a flight of stairs or disease. Disability maintains no socio-economic boundaries. Since disability catches up with most people ill its fold ill old age, it is a class that any of us may fall ill it someday.”

Even today the disabled in India see their physical or mental limitations as either a source of shame or a source of inspiration for others. By concentrating on overcoming the disability, we fail to notice that a disability itself cannot be overcome by a disabled person, however, heroic she or he may be. In the West, the Disability Rights Movement has realized this and, therefore, they proclaim that “it is okay, even good, to be disabled”.

HELPING HUMAN’S ISSUE OF CONCERN ABOUT DISABLEDS’ RIGHTS ARE:

  • Lack of education opportunities.
  • Lack of employment and livelihood opportunities.
  • Barriers to accessibility.
  • Denial of rights to promotion and emoluments to those who do find employment.
  • The disabled and Laws.
  • The Right of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2014.

What educational institutes don’t realise is that in India a large number of students on their attendance roll unknowingly suffer from varying levels of mental or physical disabilities as many of these disabilities are not easily identifiable and awareness about them is lacking in the educational circuits.
Just as our schools don’t seem to care for the disabled students, they don’t pay much attention to the training of teachers for such children either. A school willing to hire faculty for disabled students might find themselves stumped. The problem is that courses in India offering B.Ed. in Special Education also tend to club all the various types of disabilities under one umbrella. Only few institutes such as National Centre For disability Studies, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in Delhi,realise that educational expertise of teachers working with different types of mental and physical disabilities differ from one another.
With reputed mainstream schools racing to score higher marks and thus focusing only on granting admission to those they deem mentally and physical fit, and the lack of decisive action by the government to oppose such educational practices, the question remains whether inclusive education for the disabled in India is to remain a myth.
International Literacy Day was first celebrated on September 9, 1996 after it was proclaimed by UNESCO, to remind international communities of the importance of individual and community literacy. However, for aspirant students with disabilities 1995-96 proved exceptionally momentous as the Indian government enacted the Persons with Disability Act in 1995. A clause under this act made it imperative for educational institutes to take steps towards inclusive education, laying great emphasis on the equality and rightful treatment of people with disabilities.
While this act demanded that children with disabilities be given an equal opportunity to join and pursue studies in mainstream educational institutes, statistics note that 9/10th of disabled children in India still find themselves excluded, although it has been 17 years since.
Putting this into perspective means that 90% of the estimated children with disabilities in India are unable to pursue even primary education. The root cause of the problem is multifarious.
First is the lack of specialised teachers in mainstream schools. These teachers would conventionally have a B.Ed. in Special Education, having been trained to address the problems that a student with a mental or physical disability might face while pursuing an educational course along with children without disabilities.
Schools are unwilling to make the initial expenditure associated with integration of disabled students in mainstream education. Although in 1974 the Ministry of Welfare, Central Government of India initiated the Integrated Education of Disabled Children (IEDC) program, providing financial support to assist schools provide disabled students uniforms, transportation, and special equipment.
The scheme was largely a failure due to shortcomings in its administration and implementation. Furthermore, even after its revision in 1992, under which 100% assistance became available to schools offering such students with ‘integrated’ education, the scheme wasn’t able to achieve its intended success.
The lack of compulsory implementation and quota for the disabled in schools might have been one of the reasons for the schemes slack achievement. However, the major reason remains the expense that schools face hiring multiple teachers with a B.Ed. in various spheres of Special Education. Although such a move remains necessary on the part of the schools so that they are equipped to address at least the primary concerns of disabled students, the motivation to do so was found to be lacking.
The obvious reason for this being that the ratio of students suffering from physical or mental disabilities to the number of students without disabilities is lopsided in the favour of latter. Thus, for mainstream schools, the salaries of the teachers with specialised B.Ed. could come across as an unnecessary expense, especially when it would be easier for these schools to just give those classroom vacancies to students without disabilities instead.
Mainstream schools have adopted the simpler way out by insisting that children with special needs find educational institutes that cater to their specific needs. This remains the situation, despite the fact that it limits the educational opportunities available to disabled students.
However for the integration of these individuals into society is remains essential that they be offered the chance to study in mainstream schools even if it means that the school needs to hire specialized teachers and host additional classes for these students. This issue should be contemplated with the same levelheadedness with which extra tutorials are held for students falling behind their peers in math. The argument is simple; if a student weak in a subject can be tutored additionally so can disabled students be provided additional help.
Moreover, what educational institutes don’t realise is that in India a large number of students on their attendance roll unknowingly suffer from varying levels of mental or physical disabilities as many of these disabilities are not easily identifiable and awareness about them is lacking in the educational circuits.
Take for instance dyslexia, a learning disability. Statistics indicate that in India about 10% of the children in a regular classroom are dyslexic, however only a few of them are able to identify their problem. Furthermore, different students experience dyslexia differently. It is wrong to assume that dyslexia is as simple as a math formula although some symptoms might be common to all those who suffer from it.
Just as our schools don’t seem to care for the disabled students, they don’t pay much attention to the training of teachers for such children either. A school willing to hire faculty for disabled students might find themselves stumped. The problem is that courses in India offering B.Ed. in Special Education also tend to club all the various types of disabilities under one umbrella. Only few institutes such as National Centre For disability Studies, Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in Delhi,realise that educational expertise of teachers working with different types of mental and physical disabilities differ from one another.
With reputed mainstream schools racing to score higher marks and thus focusing only on granting admission to those they deem mentally and physical fit, and the lack of decisive action by the government to oppose such educational practices, the question remains whether inclusive education for the disabled in India is to remain a myth.

The UNDP report on Livelihood Opportunities for the Disabled, released on August 9th, 2012, has made the following observations regarding the livelihood of persons with disabilities:

  1. An inadequate and inefficient Management Information System has been a huge handicap to monitoring the status of employment of disabled persons.
  2. Lack of a common definition to understanding Disability across various government agencies and departments was also a big hindrance. For example, while the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment (MoSJE) uses ‘Persons with Disabilities’, most other departments continued to use the term ‘Physically Handicapped’.
  3. There is no detailed and centralized reporting system. No single source data is available with the State government on all schemes related to disabilities.
  4. Lack of transparency and information sharing affects the availability of data and performance. Except for MGNREGA website, websites for all the other livelihood schemes do not provide data pertaining to PwD beneficiaries. It is observed that less than one third (28.03%) of the PwDs actually registered have benefited under MGNREGA with 19.48 as the average number of days worked.
  5. There was an under-utilization of the quota for PwDs in schemes including job reservations, which were falling short by 66 percent of the mandated reservation.
  6. No action has ever been initiated for the non-compliance of the stipulated reservation by the various departments by the Commissioner of Disability.
  7. The PMEGP data was available for only three States namely, Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand and Odisha. The average for individual PwD Swarozgaris assisted under SGSY was found to be 1.98 percent as against the three percent reservation. The average for States under study shows 1.64 percent, with Andhra Pradesh at 3.24 percent and Madhya Pradesh at 3.03 percent, the only two States to have met the target of three percent reservation
  8. The impact of gender on disability is also manifold as urban men with physical impairments most often represent the Disabled people’s organizations (DPOs) and Women, especially those with learning difficulties, sensory impairments or mental illness and multiple disabilities rarely get equal access, resulting in a limited or minimal representation of their needs and interests in the larger arena of policy changes.
  9. The move from sheltered employment schemes to facilitating the entry of disabled people into mainstream employment is progressive. However, market based mechanisms will not lift the disabled out of poverty as long as prejudice remains deeply embedded in social, political and economic institutions. Although a high proportion of those living in most extreme poverty (e.g. street children) are disabled, they are often also excluded from assistance programmes as disability is seen as a specialist issue, for others to deal with.

Barriers are obstacles. Barriers to accessibility are obstacles that make it difficult — sometimes impossible — for people with disabilities to do the things most of us take for granted — things like going shopping, working, or taking public transit.

When we think of barriers to accessibility, most of us think of physical barriers — like a person who uses a wheelchair not being able to enter a public building because there is no ramp.

The fact is there are many kinds of barriers. Some are visible. Many are invisible.

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Barriers to accessibility

Type of barriers

Examples

Attitudinal barriers are those that discriminate against people with disabilities.

  • thinking that people with disabilities are inferior
  • assuming that a person who has a speech impairment can’t understand you

Information or communications barriers happen when a person can’t easily understand information.

  • print is too small to read
  • websites that can’t be accessed by people who are not able to use a mouse
  • signs that are not clear or easily understood.

Technology barriers occur when a technology can’t be modified to support various assistive devices.

  • a website that doesn’t support screen-reading software

Organizational barriers are an organization’s policies, practices or procedures that discriminate against people with disabilities.

  • a hiring process that is not open to people with disabilities

Architectural and physical barriers are features of buildings or spaces that cause problems for people with disabilities.

  • hallways and doorways that are too narrow for a person using a wheelchair, electric scooter or walker
  • counters that are too high for a person of short stature
  • poor lighting for people with low vision
  • doorknobs that are difficult for people with arthritis to grasp
  • parking spaces that are too narrow for a driver who uses a wheelchair
  • telephones that are not equipped with telecommunications devices for people who are Deaf, deafened or hard of hearing

“The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995” had come into enforcement on February 7, 1996. It is a significant step which ensures equal opportunities for the people with disabilities and their full participation in the nation building. The Act provides for both the preventive and promotional aspects of rehabilitation like education, employment and vocational training, reservation, research and manpower development, creation of barrier- free environment, rehabilitation of persons with disability, unemployment allowance for the disabled, special insurance scheme for the disabled employees and establishment of homes for persons with severe disability etc.

3% of vacancies in government employment shall be reserved for people with disabilities, 1% each for the persons suffering from:

  • Blindness or Low Vision
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Locomotor Disabilities & Cerebral Palsy
  • Suitable Scheme shall be formulated for
  • The training and welfare of persons with disabilities
  • The relaxation of upper age limit
  • Regulating the employment
  • Health and Safety measures and creation of a non- handicapping, environment in places where persons with disabilities are employed

Government Educational Institutes and other Educational Institutes receiving grant from Government shall reserve at least 3% seats for people with disabilities.

No employee can be sacked or demoted if they become disabled during service,  although they can be moved to another post with the same pay and condition. No promotion can be denied because of impairment.

Despite of all these provisions and laws the person with disability is facing discrimination on a regular basis however our constitution provides equal opportunity to everyone as:

Constitutional Provisions relating to the ‘Principles of Natural Justice’

Article 14: as we know that this Article guarantees equality before law and equal protection of law. It bars discrimination and prohibits both discriminatory laws and administrative action. Art 14 is now proving to be bulwark against any arbitrary or discriminatory state action. The horizons of equality as embodied in Art 14 have been expanding as a result of the judicial pronouncements and Art 14 has now come to have a highly activist magnitude. It laid down general preposition that all persons in similar circumstance shall be treated alike both in privileges and liabilities imposed.

Art 14 manifests in the form of following propositions:
(i) A law conferring unguided and unrestricted power on an authority is bad for being arbitrary and discriminatory.
(ii) Art. 14 illegalize discrimination in the actual exercise of any discretionary power.
(iii) Art. 14 strikes at arbitrariness in administrative action and ensures fairness and equality of treatment.

In some cases, the Courts insisted, with a view to control arbitrary action on the part of the administration, that the person adversely affected by administrative action be given the right of being heard before the administrative body passes an order against him. It is believed that such a procedural safeguard may minimize the chance of the Administrative authority passing an arbitrary order. Thus, the Supreme Court has extracted from Art. 14 the principle that natural justice is an integral part of administrative process.  Hence there shall be no discrimination on the ground of disability.

The Constitution of India applies uniformly to every legal citizen of India, whether they are healthy or disabled in any way (physically or mentally)

Under the Constitution the disabled have been guaranteed the following fundamental rights:

  1. The Constitution secures to the citizens including the disabled, a right of justice, liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship, equality of status and of opportunity and for the promotion of fraternity.
  2. Article 15(1) enjoins on the Government not to discriminate against any citizen of India (including disabled) on the ground of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth.
  3. Article 15 (2) States that no citizen (including the disabled) shall be subjected to any disability, liability, restriction or condition on any of the above grounds in the matter of their access to shops, public restaurants, hotels and places of public entertainment or in the use of wells, tanks, bathing ghats, roads and places of public resort maintained wholly or partly out of government funds or dedicated to the use of the general public. Women and children and those belonging to any socially and educationally backward classes or the Scheduled Castes & Tribes can be given the benefit of special laws or special provisions made by the State.
  4. There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens (including the disabled) in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office under the State.
  5. No person including the disabled irrespective of his belonging can be treated as an untouchable. It would be an offence punishable in accordance with law as provided by Article 17 of the Constitution.
  6. Every person including the disabled has his life and liberty guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution.
  7. There can be no traffic in human beings (including the disabled), and beggar and other forms of forced labour is prohibited and the same is made punishable in accordance with law (Article 23).
  8. Article 24 prohibits employment of children (including the disabled) below the age of 14 years to work in any factory or mine or to be engaged in any other hazardous employment. Even a private contractor acting for the Government cannot engage children below 14 years of age in such employment.
  9. Article 25 guarantees to every citizen (including the disabled) the right to freedom of religion. Every disabled person (like the non-disabled) has the freedom of conscience to practice and propagate his religion subject to proper order, morality and health.
  10. No disabled person can be compelled to pay any taxes for the promotion and maintenance of any particular religion or religious group.
  11. No Disabled person will be deprived of the right to the language, script or culture which he has or to which he belongs.
  12. Every disabled person can move the Supreme Court of India to enforce his fundamental rights and the rights to move the Supreme Court is itself guaranteed by Article 32.
  13. No disabled person owning property (like the non-disabled) can be deprived of his property except by authority of law though right to property is not a fundamental right. Any unauthorized deprivation of property can be challenged by suit and for relief by way of damages.
  14. Every disabled person (like the non-disabled) on attainment of 18 years of age becomes eligible for inclusion of his name in the general electoral roll for the territorial constituency to which he belongs.

Education Law for the Disabled

  • The right to education is available to all citizens including the disabled. Article 29(2) of the Constitution provides that no citizen shall be denied admission into any educational institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on the ground of religion, race, caste or language.
  • Article 45 of the Constitution directs the State to provide free and compulsory education for all children (including the disabled) until they attain the age of 14 years. No child can be denied admission into any education institution maintained by the State or receiving aid out of State funds on the ground of religion, race, caste or language.

Health Laws

  • Article 47 of the constitution imposes on the Government a primary duty to raise the level of nutrition and standard of living of its people and make improvements in public health – particularly to bring about prohibition of the consumption of intoxicating drinks and drugs which are injurious toone’s health except for medicinal purposes.
  • The health laws of India have many provisions for the disabled. Some of the Acts which make provision for health of the citizens including the disabled may be seen in the Mental Health Act, 1987 (See later in the chapter).

Family Laws

Various laws relating to the marriage enacted by the Government for DIFFERENT communities apply equally to the disabled. In most of these Acts it has been provided that the following circumstances will disable a person from undertaking a marriage. These are:

  • Where either party is an idiot or lunatic,
  • Where one party is unable to give a valid consent due to unsoundness of mind or is suffering from a mental disorder of such a kind and extent as to be unfit for ‘marriage for procreation of children’
  • Where the parties are within the degree of prohibited relationship or are sapindas of each other unless permitted by custom or usage.
  • Where either party has a living spouse

The rights and duties of the parties to a marriage whether in respect of disabled or non-disabled persons are governed by the specific provisions contained in different marriage Acts, such as the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955, the Christian Marriage Act, 1872 and the Parsi Marriage and Divorce Act, 1935. Other marriage Acts which exist include; the Special Marriage Act, 1954 (for spouses of differing religions) and the Foreign Marriage Act, 1959 (for marriage outside India). The Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1929 as amended in 1978 to prevent the solemnization of child marriages also applies to the disabled. A Disabled person cannot act as a guardian of a minor under the Guardian and

Wards Act, 1890 if the disability is of such a degree that one cannot act as a guardian of the minor. A similar position is taken by the Hindu Minority and Guardianship Act, 1956, as also under the Muslim Law

Succession Laws for the Disabled

Under the Hindu Succession Act, 1956 which applies to Hindus it has been specifically provided that physical disability or physical deformity would not disentitle a person from inheriting ancestral property. Similarly, in the Indian Succession Act, 1925 which applies in the case of intestate and testamentary succession, there is no provision which deprives the disabled from inheriting an ancestral property. The position with regard to Parsis and the Muslims is the same. In fact a disabled person can also dispose his property by writing a ‘will’ provided he understands the import and consequence of writing a will at the time when a will is written. For example, a person of unsound mind can make a Will during periods of sanity. Even blind persons or those who are deaf and dumb can make their Wills if they understand the import and consequence of doing it.

Labour Laws for the Disabled

The rights of the disabled have not been spelt out so well in the labour legislations but provisions which cater to the disabled in their relationship with the employer are contained in delegated legislations such as rules, regulations and standing orders.

Judicial procedures for the disabled

Under the Designs Act, 1911 which deals with the law relating to the protection of designs any person having jurisdiction in respect of the property of a disabled person (who is incapable of making any statement or doing anything required to be done under this Act) may be appointed by the Court under Section 74, to make such statement or do such thing in the name and on behalf of the person subject to the disability. The disability may be lunacy or other disability.

Income Tax Concessions

Relief for Handicapped

  • Section 80 DD: Section 80 DD provides for a deduction in respect of the expenditure incurred by an individual or Hindu Undivided Family resident in India on the medical treatment (including nursing) training and rehabilitation etc. of handicapped dependants. For officiating the increased cost of such maintenance, the limit of the deduction has been raised from Rs.12000/- to Rs.20000/-.
  • Section 80 V: A new section 80V has been introduced to ensure that the parent in whose hands income of a permanently disabled minor has been clubbed under Section 64, is allowed to claim a deduction upto Rs.20000/- in terms of Section 80 V.
  • Section 88B: This section provides for an additional rebate from the net tax payable by a resident individual who has attained the age of 65 years. It has been amended to increase the rebate from 10% to 20% in the cases where the gross total income does not exceed Rs.75000/- (as against a limit of Rs.50000/- specified earlier).

The persons with disabilities (PWD) (equal opportunities, protection of rights and full participation) act, 1995

“The Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995” had come into enforcement on February 7, 1996. It is a significant step which ensures equal opportunities for the people with disabilities and their full participation in the nation building. The Act provides for both the preventive and promotional aspects of rehabilitation like education, employment and vocational training, reservation, research and manpower development, creation of barrier- free environment, rehabilitation of persons with disability, unemployment allowance for the disabled, special insurance scheme for the disabled employees and establishment of homes for persons with severe disability etc.

Main Provisions of the Act

  • Prevention and Early Detection of Disabilities
  • Education
  • Employment
  • Non-Discrimination
  • Research and Manpower Development
  • Affirmative Action
  • Social Security
  • Grievance Redressal

Prevention and early detection of disabilities

  • Surveys, investigations and research shall be conducted to ascertain the cause of occurrence of disabilities.
  • Various measures shall be taken to prevent disabilities. Staff at the Primary Health Centre shall be trained to assist in this work.
  • All the Children shall be screened once in a year for identifying ‘at-risk’ cases.
  • Awareness campaigns shall be launched and sponsored to disseminate information.
  • Measures shall be taken for pre-natal, peri natal, and post-natal care of the mother and child.

Education

  • Every Child with disability shall have the rights to free education till the age of 18 years in integrated schools or special schools.
  • Appropriate transportation, removal of architectural barriers and restructuring of modifications in the examination system shall be ensured for the benefit of children with disabilities.
  • Children with disabilities shall have the right to free books, scholarships, uniform and other learning material.
  • Special Schools for children with disabilities shall be equipped with vocational training facilities.
  • Non-formal education shall be promoted for children with disabilities.
  • Teachers’ Training Institutions shall be established to develop requisite manpower.
  • Parents may move to an appropriate forum for the redressal of grievances regarding the placement of their children with disabilities.

Employment

3% of vacancies in government employment shall be reserved for people with disabilities, 1% each for the persons suffering from:

  • Blindness or Low Vision
  • Hearing Impairment
  • Locomotor Disabilities & Cerebral Palsy
  • Suitable Scheme shall be formulated for
  • The training and welfare of persons with disabilities
  • The relaxation of upper age limit
  • Regulating the employment
  • Health and Safety measures and creation of a non- handicapping, environment in places where persons with disabilities are employed

Government Educational Institutes and other Educational Institutes receiving grant from Government shall reserve at least 3% seats for people with disabilities.

No employee can be sacked or demoted if they become disabled during service,  although they can be moved to another post with the same pay and condition. No promotion can be denied because of impairment.

Affirmative Action

Aids and Appliances shall be made available to the people with disabilities.

Allotment of land shall be made at concessional rates to the people with disabilities for:

  • House
  • Business
  • Special Recreational Centers
  • Special Schools
  • Research Schools
  • Factories by Entrepreneurs with Disability,

Non-Discrimination

  • Public building, rail compartments, buses, ships and air-crafts will be designed to give easy access to the disabled people.
  • In all public places and in waiting rooms, the toilets shall be wheel chair accessible. Braille and sound symbols are also to be provided in all elevators (lifts).
  • All the places of public utility shall be made barrier- free by providing the ramps.

Research and Manpower Development

  • Research in the following areas shall be sponsored and promoted
  • Prevention of Disability
  • Rehabilitation including community based rehabilitation
  • Development of Assistive Devices.
  • Job Identification
  • On site Modifications of Offices and Factories
  • Financial assistance shall be made available to the universities, other institutions of higher learning, professional bodies and non-government research- units or institutions, for undertaking research for special education, rehabilitation and manpower development.

Social Security

  • Financial assistance to non-government organizations for the rehabilitation of persons with disabilities.
  • Insurance coverage for the benefit of the government employees with disabilities.
  • Unemployment allowance to the people with disabilities who are registered with the special employment exchange for more than a year and could not find any gainful occupation

Grievance Redressal

  • In case of violation of the rights as prescribed in this act, people with disabilities may move an application to the
  • Chief Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities in the Centre, or
  • Commissioner for Persons with Disabilities in the State.

The Mental Health Act, 1987

Under the Mental Health Act, 1987 mentally ill persons are entitled to the following rights:

  1. A right to be admitted, treated and cared in a psychiatric hospital or psychiatric nursing home or convalescent home established or maintained by the Government or any other person for the treatment and care of mentally ill persons (other than the general hospitals or nursing homes of the Government).
  2. Even mentally ill prisoners and minors have a right of treatment in psychiatric hospitals or psychiatric nursing homes of the Government.
  3. Minors under the age of 16 years, persons addicted to alcohol or other drugs which lead to behavioral changes, and those convicted of any offence are entitled to admission, treatment and care in separate psychiatric hospitals or nursing homes established or maintained by the Government.
  4. Mentally ill persons have the right to get regulated, directed and co-ordinated mental health services from the Government. The Central Authority and the State Authorities set up under the Act have the responsibility of such regulation and issue of licenses for establishing and maintaining psychiatric hospitals and nursing homes.
  5. Treatment at Government hospitals and nursing homes mentioned above can be obtained either as in patient or on an out-patients basis.
  6. Mentally ill persons can seek voluntary admission in such hospitals or nursing homes and minors can seek admission through their guardians. Admission can be sought for by the relatives of the mentally ill person on behalf of the latter. Applications can also be made to the local magistrate for grants of such (reception) orders.
  7. The police have an obligation to take into protective custody a wandering or neglected mentally ill person, and inform his relative, and also have to produce such a person before the local magistrate for issue of reception orders.
  8. Mentally ill persons have the right to be discharged when cured and entitled to ‘leave’ the mental health facility in accordance with the provisions in the Act.
  9. Where mentally ill persons own properties including land which they cannot themselves manage, the district court upon application has to protect and secure the management of such properties by entrusting the same to a ‘Court of Wards’, by appointing guardians of such mentally ill persons or appointment of managers of such property.
  10. The costs of maintenance of mentally ill persons detained as in-patient in any government psychiatric hospital or nursing home shall be borne by the state government concerned unless such costs have been agreed to be borne by the relative or other person on behalf of the mentally ill person and no provision for such maintenance has been made by order of the District Court. Such costs can also be borne out of the estate of the mentally ill person.
  11. Mentally ill persons undergoing treatment shall not be subjected to any indignity (whether physical or mental) or cruelty. Mentally ill persons cannot be used without their own valid consent for purposes of research, though they could receive their diagnosis and treatment.
  12. Mentally ill persons who are entitled to any pay, pension, gratuity or any other form of allowance from the government (such as government servants who become mentally ill during their tenure) cannot be denied of such payments. The person who is in-charge of such mentally person or his dependents will receive such payments after the magistrate has certified the same.
  13. A mentally ill person shall be entitled to the services of a legal practitioner by order of the magistrate or district court if he has no means to engage a legal practitioner or his circumstances so warrant in respect of proceedings under the Act.

The Rehabilitation Council of India Act, 1992

This Act provides guarantees so as to ensure the good quality of services rendered by various rehabilitation personnel. Following is the list of such guarantees:

  1. To have the right to be served by trained and qualified rehabilitation professionals whose names are borne on the Register maintained by the Council
  2. To have the guarantee of maintenance of minimum standards of education required for recognition of rehabilitation qualification by universities or institutions in India.
  3. To have the guarantee of maintenance of standards of professional conduct and ethics by rehabilitation professionals in order to protect against the penalty of disciplinary action and removal from the Register of the Council
  4. To have the guarantee of regulation of the profession of rehabilitation professionals by a statutory council under the control of the central government and within the bounds prescribed by the statute

The national trust for welfare of persons with autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities act, 1999

  1. The Central Government has the obligation to set up, in accordance with this Act and for the purpose of the benefit of the disabled, the National Trust for Welfare of Persons with Autism, Cerebral Palsy, Mental Retardation and Multiple Disability at New Delhi.
  2. The National Trust created by the Central Government has to ensure that the objects for which it has been set up as enshrined in Section 10 of this Act have to be fulfilled.
  3. It is an obligation on part of the Board of Trustees of the National Trust so as to make arrangements for an adequate standard of living of any beneficiary named in any request received by it, and to provide financial assistance to the registered organizations for carrying out any approved programme for the benefit of disabled.
  4. Disabled persons have the right to be placed under guardianship appointed by the ‘Local Level Committees’ in accordance with the provisions of the Act. The guardians so appointed will have the obligation to be responsible for the disabled person and their property and required to be accountable for the same.
  5. A disabled person has the right to have his guardian removed under certain conditions. These include an abuse or neglect of the disabled, or neglect or misappropriation of the property under care.
  6. Whenever the Board of Trustees are unable to perform or have persistently made default in their performance of duties, a registered organization for the disabled can complain to the central government to have the Board of Trustees superseded and/or reconstituted.
  7. The National Trust shall be bound by the provisions of this Act regarding its accountability, monitoring finance, accounts and audit.

UN Declaration on the Rights of Mentally Retarded Persons

This declaration on the rights of mentally retarded person’s calls for national and international actions so as to ensure that it will be used as a common basis and frame of reference for the protection of their rights:

  1. The mentally retarded person has, to the maximum degree of feasibility, the same rights as under human beings.
  2. The mentally retarded person has a right to proper medical care, physical therapy and to such education, training, rehabilitation and guidance which will enable him to further develop his ability, and reach maximum potential in life.
  3. The mentally retarded person has a right of economic security and of a decent standard of living. He/she has a right to perform productive work or to participate in any other meaningful occupation to the fullest possible extent of capabilities.
  4. Whenever possible, the mentally retarded person should live with his own family or with his foster parents and participate in different forms of community life. The family with which he lives should receive assistance. If an institutional care becomes necessary then it should be provided in surroundings and circumstances as much closer as possible to that of a normal lifestyle.
  5. The mentally retarded person has a right to a qualified guardian when this is required in order to protect his personal well-being or interests.
  6. The mentally retarded person has a right to get protection from exploitation, abuse and a degrading treatment. If prosecuted for any offence; he shall have right to the due process of law, with full recognition being given to his degree of mental responsibility.
  7. Whenever mentally retarded persons are unable (because of the severity of their handicap) to exercise their rights in a meaningful way or it should become necessary to restrict or deny some or all of their rights then the procedure(s) used for that restriction or denial of rights must contain proper legal safeguards against every form of abuse. This procedure for the mentally retarded must be based on an evaluation of their social capability by qualified experts, and must be subject to periodic review and a right of appeal to the higher authorities.

The Union Cabinet on 12 December 2013 approved the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Bill, 2011. The Bill is a comprehensive measure that covers a whole spectrum of problems from physical disabilities to mental illness and multiple disabilities. It will replace the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunity Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act of 1995.

The Bill is based on the recommendations of Sudha Kaul Committee appointed in 2010 by the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment.

Main highlights of the Bill

  • Provides for 5% reservation in public sector jobs and makes the private sector more accountable for creating a disabled-friendly environment. It provides incentives for the private sector to take such measures.
  • To ensure political participation, the Bill says that every person with disability who fulfils eligibility requirements is entitled to be registered as a voter. He/she should not be disqualified from exercising the voting right on the grounds of disability, irrespective of any stipulation to the contrary in any law for the time being in force.
  • Further, it says that any person who is unable to vote in person due to disability or because of admission to hospital for treatment is entitled to opt for postal ballot. It requires the Election Commission to ensure that all polling stations are accessible to persons with disabilities.
  • It allows mentally unsound women the right to fertility and prescribes punishment for forced abortion or hysterectomy on them.
  • The Bill is based on the premise of all rights for all disabled. The Bill has been described as historic by the social activists as it has provided the definition of disability in very expansive terms to cover all kinds of disability whether physical or mental.

Analysis

According to Census 2001, there were about 2.2 crore persons with disabilities in India, constituting 2.1% of the total population. The estimated population of persons with disabilities in 2008 is 2.44 crore.

The disability rights emerged from the movements of non-government organizations (NGOs) in late 1970s and 1980s demanding woman and dalit rights. This culminated in persons with different ability (PWD) attaining a platform to voice their concern. As a result, Government of India (GoI) in 1995 enacted the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunity Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act.

The 1995 Act provided for 3% reservation in government jobs among other things. The operation of the Act in last 18 years did not see any meaningful change in the rights of the disabled people. Yet it provided disabled people to come together, forming   groups as they started making demands to implement this law.

To the delight of disability groups, India ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (Disability Convention) in October 2007. This Convention marks a formal shift from the archaic medical model to the social model, and promotes the rights of people living with disabilities.

Article 1 of the Convention encapsulates the overall objective of the Convention which is “to promote, protect and ensure the full and equal enjoyment of all human rights and fundamental freedoms by all persons with disabilities, and to promote respect for their inherent dignity.”

The Convention recognises that persons with disability are right-holders instead of passive recipients of government schemes. In contrast, the 1995 Act was enacted in order to implement the Proclamation on the Full Participation and Equality of People with Disabilities in the Asia-Pacific Region. This instrument did not expressly recognise rights, but laid emphasis on the need to eliminate physical and social barriers so as to promote the participation of people living with disabilities.

The 1995 Act, thus, does not internalise any of the core principles that form the bedrock of the Disability Convention.
Furthermore, the 1995 Act adopts a narrow definition of disability and confines it to “blindness; low vision; leprosy-cured; hearing impairment; locomotor disability; mental retardation; and mental illness”. As opposed to this, the Disability Convention recognises that “disability is an evolving concept” and avoids listing specific conditions and severities.

The Disability Convention has broadly defined “persons with disabilities” to “include those who have long-term physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairments which in interaction with various barriers may hinder their full and effective participation in society on an equal basis with others.”

Moreover, even the mandate of the Constitution of India provides for equality, freedom, justice and dignity of all individuals, which implies an inclusive society for all, especially the disadvantaged. Article 41 of Part IV Directive Principles of State Policy is particularly relevant with regard to persons with disabilities. It directs the State to make effective provision for securing the right to work, to education and to public assistance in cases of unemployment, old age, sickness and disablement, and in other cases of undeserved want.

To bridge the loopholes in the 1995 Act and to abide by the express provisions of the Part IV of the Constitution and the Disability Convention of the UN, Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment appointed the

Conclusion

The Bill, to conclude, recognizes the equality of persons with disabilities and prohibits direct or indirect discrimination on the basis of disability. The Bill also makes provision for the practical implementation of all the civil political rights included in the Disability Convention. Many of these rights are also affirmed by the Constitution of India.